What happens to water when it heats up

Water properties that depend on temperature

Wa­ter is the most wide­spread sub­stance on the plan­et, with a spe­cial fea­ture that dis­tin­guish­es it from oth­er liq­uids: when heat­ed up to 40 de­grees, wa­ter ex­pands, and de­creas­es if the heat­ing tem­per­a­ture does not reach 40 de­grees.

Unique prop­er­ties of wa­ter

There is no oth­er sub­stance on earth that is as im­por­tant to hu­man be­ings as wa­ter. Oceans and seas oc­cu­py three quar­ters of the plan­et’s sur­face, and an­oth­er 20% of the land sur­face is cov­ered with snow and ice – wa­ter in a sol­id state. If it weren’t for wa­ter, which di­rect­ly in­flu­ences the cli­mate, the Earth would turn into a life­less chunk of rock fly­ing through space.

The most unique qual­i­ty of wa­ter is its im­mor­tal­i­ty. In one day, hu­man­i­ty uses at least 1 bil­lion tons of wa­ter, while the to­tal amount of the re­source on the plan­et re­mains the same. Mil­lions of years ago, there was as much wa­ter on the earth’s sur­face as there is to­day. The liv­ing or­gan­isms that in­hab­it the plan­et learned to adapt to un­fa­vor­able con­di­tions: cold, heat and dark­ness. No or­gan­ism ex­ists with­out wa­ter – this sub­stance is con­tained in all an­i­mals and plants. Three quar­ters of the hu­man body is made up of wa­ter.

[Deposit Photos]

Main prop­er­ties of wa­ter:

• col­or­less;

• trans­par­ent;

• no smell or taste;

• ca­pa­ble of ex­ist­ing in three ag­gre­gate states;

• ca­pa­ble of mov­ing from one ag­gre­gate state to an­oth­er

• flu­id.

An ex­per­i­ment show­ing the prop­er­ties of wa­ter in heat­ing and cool­ing

To car­ry out this ex­per­i­ment at home, we need two crys­tal­liz­ers and two lab­o­ra­to­ry flasks with a gas pipe, and also the fol­low­ing sub­stances: ice, hot wa­ter and wa­ter of room tem­per­a­ture.

Pour the wa­ter of room tem­per­a­ture into two iden­ti­cal flasks, mark the wa­ter lev­el and low­er them in two con­tain­ers – one with hot wa­ter and one with ice in it. What’s the re­sult of the ex­per­i­ment? The wa­ter in the flask low­ered into the hot wa­ter ris­es above the mark. The wa­ter in the flask placed in the ice sinks be­low the mark.

Con­clu­sion: as a re­sult of heat­ing wa­ter ex­pands, and af­ter cool­ing wa­ter con­tracts.

An ex­per­i­ment demon­strat­ing the prop­er­ties of wa­ter when kept in dif­fer­ent con­di­tions

You should con­duct this ex­per­i­ment at home in the evening. Fill three iden­ti­cal ves­sels with 100 ml of wa­ter – cups will be suit­able. Place one cup on the win­dow sill, the sec­ond on the ta­ble, and the third next to the heater. In the morn­ing, com­pare the re­sults: in the cup placed on the win­dowsill, the wa­ter evap­o­rat­ed by one third, in the glass on the ta­ble the wa­ter evap­o­rat­ed by half, and the cup by the heater is emp­ty and dry – the wa­ter evap­o­rat­ed com­plete­ly. Con­clu­sion: wa­ter evap­o­ra­tion de­pends on the tem­per­a­ture of the en­vi­ron­ment, the high­er it is the more swift­ly wa­ter evap­o­rates.

Ex­per­i­ment: turn­ing steam into wa­ter

To con­duct the ex­per­i­ment, pre­pare spe­cial equip­ment:

• stands;

• a spir­it burn­er;

• a met­al plate;

• a flask with a gas pipe.

Pour wa­ter into the flask and heat it over the spir­it burn­er un­til it boils. Hold the cold met­al plate by the gas pipe – the steam will set­tle on the plate, turn­ing into drops of wa­ter. The trans­for­ma­tion of the gaseous wa­ter into liq­uid is called con­den­sa­tion. Con­clu­sion: un­der in­tense heat­ing, wa­ter turns into steam and re­turns to a liq­uid state on con­tact with a cold sur­face.

Сondensate on the glass surface [Deposit Photos]

Heat­ing wa­ter to a boil­ing state

Wa­ter that reach­es boil­ing point has char­ac­ter­is­tic fea­tures: the liq­uid seethes, bub­bles form in­side it, and a thick steam ris­es up. This hap­pens be­cause wa­ter mol­e­cules re­ceive ad­di­tion­al en­er­gy from the source of warmth dur­ing heat­ing, they vi­brate and move more quick­ly.

Heated water [Deposit Photos]

Dur­ing lengthy heat­ing, the liq­uid reach­es boil­ing point – bub­bles of steam ap­pear on the walls of the ves­sel. If the boil­ing doesn’t stop, the process con­tin­ues un­til all of the wa­ter turns into gas. If the tem­per­a­ture is in­creased, pres­sure ris­es, the wa­ter mol­e­cules move more quick­ly and over­come the in­ter­molec­u­lar forces that bind them. The at­mo­spher­ic pres­sure re­sists the steam pres­sure, and the wa­ter boils when the steam pres­sure ex­ceeds the out­side pres­sure, or reach­es it.