Copper vs. Copper
Draw by dissolving!
- Put on protective gloves and eyewear.
- Conduct the experiment on the safety underlay.
- Observe safety precautions when working with boiling water.
- Conduct the experiment in a well-ventilated area.
- Do not allow chemicals to come into contact with the eyes or mouth.
- Keep young children, animals and those not wearing eye protection away from the experimental area.
- Store this experimental set out of reach of children under 12 years of age.
- Clean all equipment after use.
- Make sure that all containers are fully closed and properly stored after use.
- Ensure that all empty containers are disposed of properly.
- Do not use any equipment which has not been supplied with the set or recommended in the instructions for use.
- Do not replace foodstuffs in original container. Dispose of immediately.
- In case of eye contact: Wash out eye with plenty of water, holding eye open if necessary. Seek immediate medical advice.
- If swallowed: Wash out mouth with water, drink some fresh water. Do not induce vomiting. Seek immediate medical advice.
- In case of inhalation: Remove person to fresh air.
- In case of skin contact and burns: Wash affected area with plenty of water for at least 10 minutes.
- In case of doubt, seek medical advice without delay. Take the chemical and its container with you.
- In case of injury always seek medical advice.
- The incorrect use of chemicals can cause injury and damage to health. Only carry out those experiments which are listed in the instructions.
- This experimental set is for use only by children over 12 years.
- Because children’s abilities vary so much, even within age groups, supervising adults should exercise discretion as to which experiments are suitable and safe for them. The instructions should enable supervisors to assess any experiment to establish its suitability for a particular child.
- The supervising adult should discuss the warnings and safety information with the child or children before commencing the experiments. Particular attention should be paid to the safe handling of acids, alkalis and flammable liquids.
- The area surrounding the experiment should be kept clear of any obstructions and away from the storage of food. It should be well lit and ventilated and close to a water supply. A solid table with a heat resistant top should be provided
- Substances in non-reclosable packaging should be used up (completely) during the course of one experiment, i.e. after opening the package.
FAQ and troubleshooting
This set contains two types of plates: copper and iron. The iron plates are grey. The copper plates have a characteristic orange color.
The experiment’s success depends on how well you polish the plate. You have to polish any traces of dirt away. In general, the entire surface should acquire a light-pinkish hue. But don't overdo it! If you rub the plate too long and thoroughly, you can remove the copper coating entirely.
Traces of oils from your fingers (even recently washed) can remain on the metal. The reaction will not occur in these areas, and it can spoil the result.
No, you’ll have to polish the plate again. Any glue particles left on the metal can interfere with the experiment.
First, make sure that you added all the correct reagents to the solution (please note that you need to use the NaCl in the bottle with the green sticker, not the yellow one). Keep stirring until the exposed parts of the plate are completely green – if the water isn’t hot enough, the process can take longer. If neither of these steps works, it’s possible that you didn’t polish the plate enough. In this case, you will have to start over.
Rub the plate firmly with a sponge moistened with dishwashing liquid or soap, then rinse it with warm water. You can also try to remove the glue with the iron wool that comes with the kit – just polish it persistently and a bit more firmly.
The surface of the polymer base is covered with a layer of copper. Make sure it's nice and clean.
Now protect some of the copper with a sticker of your choice.
Submerge the plate in a hot solution of sodium chloride NaCl and copper sulfate CuSO4.
The unprotected copper Cu0 engages in a chemical reaction with the copper from CuSO4, which is present in the solution as Cu2+. They both turn into a third form of copper, Cu1+, which does not stick to the copper or the polymer plate.
After removing the sticker, you get a nice keychain!
Please refer to local regulations when disposing of chemicals. Dispose of other solid waste with household garbage. Pour leftover solutions down the sink. Wash with an excess of water.
What exactly happened with all the coppers (on the plate, from the copper sulfate CuSO4, and whatever they turned into during the reaction)? As it turns out, metallic copper consists of copper particles packed with a whole cloud of electrons so that there are just enough electrons for each copper particle. The copper particles in the metal are called Cu0 (the “0” means that the particle isn’t missing electrons, and doesn’t have any extra electrons either). The copper particles from the copper sulfate, however, are missing exactly two electrons each , and are thus called Cu2+ (for the number of electrons they are missing).
In certain conditions, particles can share their electrons with similar particles that are lacking some electrons. In this case, these conditions being the presence of sodium chloride NaCl and hot water, Cu0 gives one electron to Cu2+ , which makes them both turn into Cu1+ . Eventually, all the unprotected metallic Cu0 becomes Cu1+, which doesn't stick to the copper or the polymer plate.
In one particular field of engineering, the ability to easily create complex metallic patterns comes in very handy. Electric circuits in modern electronics require an impossible number of wires to operate. Luckily, instead of separate wires, one can just print the circuit with metal in pretty much the same way you just printed a picture. The result is called a "printed circuit board" , which you can find inside pretty much any electronics these days.
Why polish the copper surface?
To ensure an even and accurate result, the CEM plate (composite epoxy material) should be polished to remove any dirt, glue particles, and even traces of oil from your fingers. In addition, a protective copper oxide film may have formed on the surface of the copper. This film has a protective role in the main part of the metal. All of these elements serve as a kind of barrier and impede the reaction, preventing the Cu0 from reaching the reagents it is supposed to interact with. This muddles the result significantly.
On a commercial scale, chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical methods are used to obtain the same cleaning result. Sometimes just one method is sufficient, whereas other cases, depending on the material, require a harsher approach. In addition, the surface of the copper can exhibit various irregularities and scratches. Mechanical polishing removes all of the above impurities, often along with the top layer of metal, which is sometimes unnecessary.