Electrons in an atom behave very differently. You will see that when an electron becomes a part of the atom, it is spread around the nucleus like a cloud, and you will see the shape of S and P orbitals. Later, you will learn the Pauli Exclusion Principle that states that only two electrons can share the same orbital. In this lesson, chemical symbols for elements are introduced.
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atoms, electrons, electron cloud, electron orbitals, orbital shape
From the Bohr-Rutherford diagram:
- Electrons are moving around the nucleus
- The size of an electron is roughly the same as that of a proton and neutron
- The 'distance' from the nucleus to electrons and between electrons
- Learn that the nucleus is surrounded by electron clouds
- Be introduced to orbitals
- Learn that two electrons can share one orbital
- Orbitals have different shapes and sizes
History and sources of knowledge
- History from Rutherford to Bohr and modern theory.
- Quantum theory: description, computational models.
- Scientific approach: the best scientific explanation is based on evidence (observations) and scientific knowledge. The theory should explain the observations and make predictions.
Topics to discuss
- Discuss how we can trust theories about things we can't see.
- The best scientific explanation is based on evidence (observations) and scientific knowledge.
Fun facts and quotes
- How and why atom models developed? A scientific approach requires correcting a hypothesis if new findings (observations, measurements) are not explained by an old one.
- How can we trust theories about things we can't see?
- Emissions and the absorption spectra of elements as the source of information about energy levels.
- Energy level concept.
- Ladder with a fixed position analogy: like climbing the ladder with the fixed position you can only step on these positions, but not in between them. Electrons likewise can have only certain energy levels. In this case, the ladder steps would be much smaller and closer to the top.
- Quantum theory.
- What’s the difference in shape between s- and p- orbitals? (symmetry description)
- How many electrons do the first 3 noble gases have? With an explanation.